Traditional Sauna: Traditional Sauna Explained

Traditional Sauna: Traditional Sauna Explained

Traditional Sauna: Traditional Sauna Explained

The traditional sauna, a cornerstone of many cultures and a symbol of relaxation and wellness, is a fascinating topic that encompasses a rich history, unique construction methods, and a variety of health benefits. This glossary entry aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the traditional sauna, delving into its origins, design, and the rituals associated with its use.

As we embark on this journey, we invite you to immerse yourself in the warmth of the traditional sauna, a place where the body and mind find harmony. Let's explore the intricacies of this age-old tradition, and discover the profound impact it has had on societies around the world.

Origins of the Traditional Sauna

The traditional sauna, also known as a Finnish sauna, has its roots in Finland, where it has been a vital part of life for thousands of years. The sauna was not merely a place for bathing, but a sacred space where people were born, healed, and prepared for their final journey after death. The sauna was, and still is, a cornerstone of Finnish culture, symbolizing cleanliness, health, and communion with nature.

The word 'sauna' itself is of Finnish origin and is the only Finnish word that has been internationally adopted in other languages. The concept of the sauna has spread across the globe, with each culture adding its unique touch, yet the essence of the sauna remains the same - a place for physical and mental purification.

The Sauna in Finnish Folklore

In Finnish folklore, the sauna was considered a sacred place, akin to a church. The 'sauna elf,' a mythical creature, was believed to reside in the sauna, protecting it and ensuring a peaceful atmosphere. Sauna-goers were expected to behave respectfully in the sauna, refraining from loud or disrespectful behavior.

The sauna also played a crucial role in major life events. Women gave birth in saunas due to the sterile environment provided by the constant heat. The bodies of the deceased were also prepared in the sauna before burial, signifying the cycle of life and death.

Design and Construction of the Traditional Sauna

The design and construction of a traditional sauna are unique, reflecting a deep understanding of the elements and a commitment to sustainability. The traditional Finnish sauna is typically built using locally sourced wood, such as pine, spruce, or aspen, which is known for its excellent heat retention properties.

The heart of the sauna is the 'kiuas,' the sauna stove, traditionally heated by burning wood. The kiuas is covered with stones, which when heated, produce the 'löyly,' the steam that is released when water is thrown onto the hot stones. This steam increases the humidity in the sauna, intensifying the heat and promoting sweating.

The Importance of Ventilation

Proper ventilation is crucial in a traditional sauna to ensure a fresh supply of air and to control the humidity and temperature. The fresh air enters the sauna near the floor and exits near the ceiling, creating a circulation of air that maintains a comfortable environment.

The size and positioning of the sauna benches are also important. The higher benches are hotter, as heat rises, while the lower benches are cooler. This allows sauna-goers to choose their preferred temperature level.

Health Benefits of the Traditional Sauna

The traditional sauna offers numerous health benefits, which have been recognized and cherished for centuries. The intense heat and humidity in the sauna cause the body to sweat profusely, flushing out toxins and impurities. This process, known as 'detoxification,' is one of the key health benefits of the sauna.

Regular sauna use can also improve cardiovascular health. The heat causes the heart rate to increase, similar to the effect of moderate exercise. This can help lower blood pressure, improve circulation, and enhance cardiac function. The sauna can also alleviate symptoms of conditions such as arthritis, asthma, and chronic fatigue.

The Mental Health Benefits

Aside from the physical benefits, the traditional sauna also offers significant mental health benefits. The heat and humidity can help reduce stress and promote relaxation, leading to improved sleep and overall well-being. The sauna is a place of tranquility, where one can disconnect from the outside world and find inner peace.

The social aspect of the sauna should not be overlooked. In many cultures, the sauna is a communal space, where people gather to relax, converse, and enjoy each other's company. This sense of community can contribute to improved mental health and a sense of belonging.

The Sauna Ritual

The traditional sauna is not just about the heat; it's about the ritual. This ritual varies from culture to culture, but it typically involves several rounds of heating and cooling, interspersed with relaxation periods. The heat sessions are followed by a cool-down phase, which can involve a cold shower, a plunge into a lake, or simply resting.

Hydration is crucial during the sauna ritual. Sauna-goers are encouraged to drink plenty of water before, during, and after the sauna to replace the fluids lost through sweating. Some cultures also enjoy a beer or a non-alcoholic beverage as part of the sauna experience.

The Use of Accessories

Accessories can enhance the sauna experience. In Finland, 'vihta' or 'vasta,' bundles of fresh birch branches, are used to gently beat the skin. This stimulates circulation and releases a pleasant aroma. Other accessories include sauna hats to protect the head from the intense heat, and wooden buckets and ladles for throwing water onto the sauna stones.

Essential oils are often added to the water thrown onto the sauna stones to create a fragrant steam. Different oils have different effects; eucalyptus, for example, is known for its refreshing and invigorating properties, while lavender promotes relaxation.


The traditional sauna is a testament to human ingenuity and a deep respect for nature. It is a place where we can reconnect with our roots, cleanse our bodies, and find peace in our minds. As we step out of the sauna, we emerge refreshed, rejuvenated, and ready to face the world with a renewed sense of purpose.

Whether you're a seasoned sauna-goer or a curious newcomer, we hope this glossary entry has provided you with a deeper understanding of the traditional sauna. May your sauna experiences be warm, relaxing, and filled with joy.

Back to blog